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Panel 23: La migración peruana en diversos contextos[]

080910DKN Cuarto Congreso Internacional de Peruanistas en el Extranjero, 25 al 27 de abril del 2007. Centro Cultural Estación Mapocho. Santiago de Chile. Panel 23: La migración peruana en diversos contextos.

==Bolivian and Peruvian diasporic education networks: A multi-heritage approach and the role of Latin Americanists .==

Susana and Paul Goulder (Andean Education Programme )

A table of contents is provided at the end of this document.. The on-going development of the network may be tracked at and (learning schemes)

Version en inglés. Un resumen en castellano se encuentra al final del documento.[]

Version en inglés. Un resumen en castellano se encuentra al final del documento. An summary in Spanish is to be found at the end of the document. There is also some Spanish content in pop-up notes (internet/screen version) or endnotes.

Universities are today key elements of cultural communities. Andean diasporic or émigré communities together with the towns or areas from which the migration stemmed - the root-source of population movement - have been termed archipiélagos culturales . Today, it is argued, technology has developed to the point that each virtual archipelago (the case quoted is that with roots in Cabanaconde, Arequipa, Peru) could support its own sector of a university or “virtual sector / university-school”, whose members – living in different nation-states - would also belong to (one or more) virtual faculties: e.g. “University-School”: Aymara speakers worldwide, “Sub-school”: Pueblo X, Bolivia, “Faculties”: archaeology, agronomy, . . ). Supra-national bodies such as the European Union and UNESCO could have a role in, for example, validating this “university of the diasporas”.

To contrast with this matrix of virtual faculties and schools and to keep it real (or at least to have a real element), the learning (tutorial / study) groups would be local - and located in each “island” of the archipiélago cultural but linked worldwide by a “virtual family or ayllu network”. Recent developments in the WWW (Web 2.0 architecture etc.) emphasising virtual communities and multimedia communication (e.g., ) seem to provide an accessible (if nascent) and affordable technology. For Latin Americans and other diasporic and indigenous communities in Europe a “European Multiheritage University” is mooted. A stepping stone to that end is this proposal for a Bolivian and Peruvian Education Network, based on the document presented to the Bolivian government (Presidency) in April 2007 and discussed with various Peruvian ministries 2006/7. The development of the specifics of this proposal took place in Peru, Bolivia, UK and France April 2005 to June 2007 and is seen as part of a longer term programme dating back to Berkeley, California and Arequipa, Peru 1987/88.

Diagram The diagram was prepared for the Cuarto Congreso Internacional de Peruanistas en el Extranjero, 25 al 27 de abril del 2007. Centro Cultural Estación Mapocho. Santiago de Chile. Panel 23: La migración peruana en diversos contextos /Peruvian migration in its various contexts. Red Educativa Peruana (Europa) , Red Educativa Boliviana (Europa).

1. The objectives of the Latin American Education Network (RELA-Europe) The objective of the Latin American Education Network (RELA-Europe) is to widen educational opportunities for Latin Americans and their families in Europe. The education materials, produced as a result, will also be of benefit to systems of education in Latin America and be of use to Europeans in Latin America and others who are interested, or have interests, in Latin America: voluntary organisations, Latin Americanists, diplomats, business people, tourists, students and so on.

2. Resources The intention is to share literature, film, virtual visits to historic sites, music, poetry, television, radio, university lectures: disseminated via RELA in modern format, for example in mp3 and mp4 files. What should the programme cover? Very briefly, the project aims to make available: 1) Educational and informative documentaries TV programmes from Bolivia and Peru. 2) Other broadcast and internet media distributed or podcasted 3) Feature films from Bolivia and Peru. 4) Documentaries, shorts and videos on Bolivia and Peru. 5) Direct access to the magnificent Peruvian and Bolivian collections in National Libraries, archives and museums. 6) Access to academic journals and reviews

The initial developments, as proposed, are in the areas of: authors’ recordings - sound files (mp3) - with associated text (htm) accessible through webpages; an introduction to Latin America and / through its cinema (using mp4 film clips / DVD movies); mp4 slide shows; downloadable music, radio and TV programmes; links to education material on other sites, and so on. The collections of materials would be open. (In the proposals for software development) they can be added to by anyone with access to internet. The donation of text, film and audio-files will be gratefully acknowledged and the materials (usually in digitised form) will be protected by – it is proposed – deposit in a back-up library, such as the National Libraries of Peru, Bolivia, Britain and France (the four countries in the original study).

Above all the programme aims to facilitate the exchange of information in multimedia format where appropriate. This project and its education programmes are about supporting Latin American (Bolivian and Peruvian initially) families in Europe, like those referred to in the section “Examples”. However it should be noted that the resources will also be available in Bolivia and Peru and to others in non-European countries. Education materials would be ‘repurposed’ for education systems in Latin America. The documents / media / materials will be of further use to others who are interested, or have interests, in Latin America: voluntary organisations, Latin Americanists, diplomats, business people, tourists, students and so on. Bolivian and Peruvian Networks. The network (RELA-Europe) is being developed in parallel with Bolivian and Peruvian Education Networks (Europe). RELA will help to link together the individual country networks as well as handling materials at the Latin American level. It is hoped that a network of bi-lingual volunteers in Latin America and Europe will enable the network to prepare materials for most of the various language areas / countries of Europe. The question arises “Why just Europe?” Other regions (of course) would be welcome to make use of the network and its materials..

3. The educational website Although some introductory and trial materials – and this article - are being hosted on the education network temporary website ( we are currently developing a purpose-built website which it is hoped will have some of the useful features of such community sites as ciberayllu , youtube and facebook (for a critique see endnote ref ), a media (text) viewer of the quality of the huaman poma site and the clean appearance of the applestore site. These are some of the objectives to be born in mind. In terms of content it is felt that the network should concentrate on making collections of books, articles, videos and other media available and accessible, leaving it to study groups and their tutors to decide how they will be using these resources. However there would be some advantages in having 1. an attempt at a common approach to some of the basic themes, the debate itself forming part of the learning process – see example in footnote below. 2. at least one virtual course for each topic. 3. a guide to the collections written by the best specialist (Latin Americanist) available. 4. Global restructuring. Consejo Britanico, centros culturales y gobiernos In what could be seen as part of a global restructuring, cultural centres supported by European states such as the British Council are threatened with closure. In Peru and Bolivia the offices are now actually closed. Ironically this comes at a time of strengthened links in terms of investment, trade and migration. (Over 10,000 Peruvians have settled in the UK in recent years and UK registered companies were due to take pole position in the foreign investment stakes). Internally in Peru, for example, “British EFL” centres are doing exceptionally well. There appears to have been a failure of vision in not replacing the Council’s activities with a programme based directly on the cultural and commercial flows between the various countries. The “cultural flows” represented by migration and “revisiting” could have been harnessed to the advantage of all. A similar failure of vision occurred when the “new” universities were establish in the United Kingdom in 1992. These universities boasted a geater international diversity in the composition of their students and staff. This factor could have been utilised to develop a new type of international university – partly occupying the social space of the “archipelago” – which could lock into the work of new “internationally-British” replacement-councils. A grand opportunity missed!

5. The role of academic specialists - Peruvianists / Bolivianists Academic specialists would have an important role in the project. They, together with the librarians and archivists, would be responsible for the collections and the guides for tutors and study groups. They would also be able to join the lists of available tutors. They would bring together – under one metaphorical roof – collections of books, articles and multimedia resources. 6. Parents and cultural associations Parents and Latin American cultural associations would play an important role in the RELA scheme, as would a network of voluntary mentors and paid tutors. Examples: Family experience in Europe. “I emigrated from Peru in 1977 and brought up three children in Britain. At various stages they encountered problems. These were especially difficult to define and did not seem to affect English children. It was as if an invisible wall was preventing them from progressing.” (Statement by Peruvian mother in London).

“We came from Bolivia in the 1950’s and our two children did well at school and university and then for no apparent reason ‘got stuck’. We had tried to give them an accurate picture of our culture in Bolivia (what little news appeared in the European press was very negative) but we had no access to good books, films, TV about the country.” (Bolivian father)

7. Cooperation of the public and private sectors Coordination between Government departments will be essential. The consular services, the newer Consejos de Consulta, the embassies (cultural, education attaches, la escuela virtual), the ministries that are responsible for the national libraries, archives and museums, the ministries of education all have key parts to play. A list of those in the Bolivian and Peruvian ministries contacted and/or visited in connection with the project is given in the Appendix / Annexe. Where resources are in the private sector (publishers, media companies, etc.) the project welcomes the opportunity to increase the efficiency and size of markets, hence opening up access to media at a reasonable price. Academic Qualifications In the longer term the project aims also to help qualify (certificate) and/or requalify Bolivians and Peruvians “on the move” (in process of migrating and settling). It is suggested that it should do this by agreement with the European Union on a set of norms which would be recognised throughout the EU and the establishment of a research and teaching faculty (online and across Europe) operating in Bolivian and Peruvian languages (initially Aymara, Castellano and Quechua) and (a) common European language(s). 8. TV and Film Peruvian and Bolivian cultural and educational television in Europe Following a meeting between TVPeru (Lima) and the Education Network it was agreed in principle that the downloading of footage from Lima would be permitted and that it could be put onto a podcasting server. Examples of how Sky TV and the BBC do this in a cost effective way can be seen on: It is thought that a similar arrangement for Bolivian TV would also be acceptable. A dedicated server would be preferable to using the hosting services of youtube-type websites. Peruvian and Bolivian film in Europe RELA has discussed with various film enterprises in Peru and Bolivia the possibility of using feature films for education purposes and the network is currently exploring the possibility of extending the “microcine” concept to European soil. In Switzerland and Spain several demonstrations / applications of the concept have already taken place. The objective is to make Peruvian and Bolivian cinema widely available in Europe, and to use it for educational purposes. 9. National libraries and museums The national libraries and museums – in this proposal – could act as principal sources for the networks’ media resources and/or as backup for the networks servers. Collections & connections to collections The network, which is the subject of this proposal, would archive and make accessible - in cooperation with authors, producers, national libraries, universities, radio, TV, film and others – “collections of media” which will be of use to the further, mainly extra-curricular education of Latin Americans in Europe and others (such as teachers in European schools). The network´s main job – in this context - is to connect students to the collections and provide good “educational communication” between the learner and the collections.

10. Study groups (grupos de aprendizaje) Network of study groups, tutors and professors The scheme would encourage the formation of study groups or learning circles – starting with parents in the home and working with existing Bolivian and Peruvian cultural, social and sporting associations in Europe. The learning groups would be able to choose their own “on-site” mentors and have access to a list of professional tutors. Subject specialists would guide study groups and their mentors / tutors in accessing what is already a bewildering maze of resources – both online and conventional (books etc.). Study Groups and Circles. The network, which is the subject of this proposal, would encourage the formation of study groups guided by paid tutors or volunteer mentors. The study groups would be set up, in the first instance, by Latin Americans and their families, consulates, and Latin American cultural associations in Europe and could be extended to include relatives and friends in both rural (whereever there is email) and urban Latin America. Networks of tutors, mentors, librarians, rapporteurs would be developed to service the study groups or circles. Getting started Whilst the network – on a voluntary free-labour basis – is getting the webpages up and running it would be feasible to start up, in parallel, some trial study groups. (1) Make up a small group (2) Choose a mentor if a paid tutor is not available. The mentor leads the academic discussion / or just chivvies it along. There could be one mentor for each topic (or group of topics) or one for the whole course. Mentors would be sent more detailed study and guidance materials than other group members. (3) Choose the “librarian” (the only member who definitely needs good internet / broadband access to RELA). In small groups the mentor and the librarian can be the same person, though it is envisaged that the best person to act as mentor does not necessarily have good or convenient access to internet. (4) Send email addresses of group members to RELA. Where a group member does not have an email address – or does not / cannot use it regularly – materials will be sent to the librarian. (5) The group agrees a learning schedule with RELA and effectively becomes part of RELA. (6) RELA will send each member the study materials for the next week - or the period between topics agreed in (5). Extra support material will be sent to the librarian and mentor. The librarian will be archiving this and materials generated by the group; helping to sort out glitches in the distribution of materials to members; helping to expand the collections of study materials for RELA. (7) Queries and responses to interactive material can generally / may be answered by additional material supplied to mentors or may have to be forwarded to a more specialized advisor. Where these queries are of general interest they will be circulated to other groups for their discussion or will be sent to a topic-specialist for consideration. (8) Mentors and librarians share materials generated by groups with others over the RELA website. This will be more difficult to implement but is of the essence for knowledge sharing. (9) New, specialist and extra contributions can be recorded in multimedia format (mp3 or mp4 files, for example). Rapporteurs for each group can help the mentor and the librarian to get these important materials onto the RELA database. Family Groups or study groups with members in different countries Although it is envisaged that most study groups will form around a theme or topic based on the use of particular collections, there is scope for the formation of “extended family” study groups. [See the concept of the “remigration cultural archipelago” in the theoretical annexe. See also topics international ayllu and clan]. Depending on the availability of internet in rural locations (only the mentor or “librarian” of the group needs access), it should shortly be possible to establish tutor groups with members in different countries, e.g. grandparents in a rural village, parents in La Paz / Santa Cruz, children in Spain. Another potential use for the mentor/ tutor system is in the creation of Bolivia-Peru study circles, i.e between Latin American countries. See also Peruvian Education network. These virtual tutorial groups spanning cultural archipelagos could be seen as channels for the transfer of technology. The term “virtual ayllu” could be appropriated for these groups, both for (1) family and friends ayllu, and (2) industry and commerce ayllu. Language networks would reinforce traditional languages In an era where traditional (indigenous, lesser-used, regional) languages are under threat, education networks could link speakers of those languages in their “home” regions with those in Europe. Peruvians and Bolivians in Chile and Argentina Following the presentation of this paper in Santiago de Chile, there appears to be interest in the programme amongst the increasing numbers of Bolivians and Peruvians there. The Peruvian Embassy in Santiago also expressed interest in the scheme.

11. Departmental and provincial associations Departmental and provincial associations in Latin America could have a distinct roll in promoting study groups. In Peru, for example, these associations provide an important link between a “home” town or village and people who have been born there but live elsewhere. In the capital city and the larger cities of Peru there are many such associations, which have recently been given a new role by the government in promoting internal tourism, which had been long neglected as a source of development.

12. Latin Americans in Europe The Latin Americans in Europe do not live in ghettos - concentrated geographically (although there are some focus points) - and so to reach to the majority, an education program must be able to distribute its material resources through Europe. A system would also be needed for the benefit of tutors or professors who would cover a great part of the 25+ countries of Europe. This would have to depend on voluntary effort, or a commercial plan. RELA is not a system of distance education but, rather, a system of access to education media via online archives and libraries and through local tutors. The role of European schools in relation to this network is still under discussion. Language Circles. Languages of Latin America and Europe The objective of the network would be to develop European learning groups in all European languages (where the availability of voluntary translators permits) and in Latin American regional languages e.g. Aymara, Quechua. This document (English) focuses on the needs of Latin Americans in English-speaking areas of Europe: Ireland, Malta, UK and other areas where documents may not be available in the national or regional language or in Spanish.

13. Essential elements Thus the project for a “Peruvian and Bolivian Education Network in Europe” will have these essential elements: 1. Access from any part of Europe to the collections of books, documents and other media (located in electronic form in the servers of the national libraries of Bolivia and Peru); 2. A system to develop, administer and encourage study groups in any city or place where Bolivians and Peruvians live in Europe (and the sytem should be able to include other Latin Americans - when the network expands); 3. So as not to reinvent the wheel these two elements would need an intermediary “the specialist” to guide the tutors and the groups in their search for relevant materials in the information labyrinth that is called Internet. The sharing of information between non-specialists will also become more important as community sites develop in sophistication. (See also “Some obstacles” )

14. Where the materials are going to be used. The materials would be prepared in Latin America, Europe and/or by Latin Americanists in other areas, and should be so developed and distributed that they are useable in for example: The home Cultural associations Community centres School and college (extra-curriculum) Embassies and consulates University (in cases where currently there are no Latin American studies) Workplace Other groups or environments and by individuals in otherwise “blank” time: e.g. on public transport, in the car. Others – please add {interactive field}

15. The resources gap: Peruvians in Europe and Europeans in Peru Recurso educativo Peruanos en Europa Europeos en el Perú Propios colegios NO SI Nivel I SI SI Nivel II NO SI Nivel III NO SI Nivel IV NO SI Propia universidad NO SI Consejo cultural NO SI Bibliotecas NO SI Propia TV educativa NO SI Cine indígena NO SI Canal de música SI SI

El Puente. Continuing education for those migrating

“How can they say that our main exports are raw materials (minerals etc)? (More than 300 thousand Peruvians emigrate each year)”. By the Peruvian cartoonist Carlin in La Republica newspaper. Lima.  Saturday 13 January 2007. More valuable than the “materias primas” are the “primas” and “primos” (cousins) who live outside Peru. Opening up education opportunity in Europe for “our cousins” is one of the main objectives of PEN and BEN - the Peruvian and Bolivian Education Network(s).

Basis for cost effective “open university” The tutorial and mentor group system would be incorporated into the proposals for a Latin American Open University, based on the revised plans for the Universidad Andina Internacional submitted to CONAFU-Peru (initially) in 1996 and revised in 2000 (see also footnote in the “philosophies” section). The infrastructure of RELA and other collaborating Latin American education networks would be used to support the dissemination of courses from Latin American universities.

16. Philosophies behind the project - theory and concepts.

Divergent and convergent theories regarding archipiélagos culturales. A review of the documentary film Transnational Fiesta: 1992 produced by Wilton Martinez and Paul Gelles referred to Peru and Washington as a “single social space ”. However few processes of migration are so “uni-directional” as that between Cabanaconde, Arequipa, Lima and Washington.

Another case is that between Peru and Paterson, New Jersey:

“En Paterson, la mayoría de la población peruana está constituida por criollos del puerto del Callao, barrios de Surquillo y el Cercado de Lima y la minoría son andinos provenientes de varios pueblos de la Sierra. Esta minoría andina está también en una posición subalterna dentro de la comunidad transnacional peruana ya que la mayoría criolla hegemoniza la dirigencia de instituciones religiosas y deportivas. Del mismo modo, en supermercados y restaurantes, se han impuesto el consumo alimenticio, la música y bailes que definen una identidad criolla . . . .”

And yet another is that of the “hijos” de Toma in Paris. Referring to their association in Paris: “La asociación Los Hijos deToma fue fundada en abril del 2001 por un grupo de lugareños, familiares y amigos del pueblo de Toma radicando en Paris - Francia. El objetivo principal de esta asociación sin fin de lucro, organizada de conformidad con la ley francesa es de contribuir en el desarrollo del sector educativo y de la salud de este pueblo de la sierra de Ancash . . .” (Ref: )

Although this type of “archipiélago cultural” model has been criticised for being too simplified, it is thought that the major criticisms can be addressed by developing further variants: e.g. convergence from multiple sources (Paterson) or from one (from Toma, Carhuaz, Peru to Paris); complex divergence from multiple sources (almost the general case) or divergence from one (Ayaviri).

A Latin American “remigration” or “returnee” model would allow for the possibility of a retorno – a return flow of migration. if not of the person then of remesas (finance) and of knowledge. As always, if models become too specific or representative they lose their advantage as a “simplifying construct”. Nevertheless with this concept embodied in the model it allowed us to postulate a Latin American (or at least Bolivian & Peruvian) open university which could operate in territories hosting migration from these countries and include the possibility of utilising that “transnational” university for technology transfer via joint study groups and research projects.

Multiculturalism and a multiple heritage society. Multiple identities. The emergence of multiple heritage societies (as if they were not there all the time) produces a new buzz phrase: multiple heritage education. Although, to an extent, implemented in the London area, where, for example, some Indian (i.e. from India) history may be taught in some schools, the practical difficulties of offering “multiple histories” overide the academic and political debate about doing so. The spiritual and religious dimensions are also those where a multi-heritage approach could be beneficial. The search for a spirtual equilibrium and that for knowledge frequently become intertwined, especially as churches take over schools and universities. In Peru previous catholic monopolies are being challenged by secular authorities and by newer protestant churches. The history of the French is no longer just the history of France, but also of the various populations which make up the French. Following this line of argument Franco-Bolivian history should now figure in French history texts – but there are possibly hundreds of other cultural groupings to consider.

Public libraries and infrastructures provided as a public good There is an old chestnut from developmentalist theory “Lay down the road (infrastructure) and development will follow”. This sometimes – even usually - happened with the railways and the roads. Classically it is supposed to have happened in the case of the nineteenth century public library movement. Will it happen with public libraries on Internet? On line libraries and international learning and research groups are the infrastructures of knowledge sharing. Spontaneous sharing of audio and video files has transformed parts of the web. New software and websites permit the archiving of videos, the formation of interest groups and the publication of “favorites” - read reading lists!

Global capital, global labour, global knowledge Some theorists maintain that in a world system with fleet-footed capital, which is internationally fluid seeking the highest rent, labour and knowledge should be similarly fluid. Any migration barriers are counter-productive. Knowledge locked-up in local or national libraries (and static labour) is simply not fit-for-purpose, not up to performance. Barriers to knowledge-sharing and education attainment such as racial or gender based glass-walls should be smashed away.

Urbanisation and the abandonment of the countryside The problem with the urban-rural surplus model (e.g. the A. Lewis model) was that often the surplus was not invested locally – but diverted “into the Miami drain” – and, secondly, the rural loss was underestimated. An so it was with international migration which incurs a cultural loss, particularly if there is a double language and cultural shift (e.g. Quechua to Spanish to English).

Self-esteem and knowledge Self-esteem particularly suffers when travelling outside the environment in which an individual has some of the usual defenses: family, sports club, friends, peer respect, children. Preparatory education before travelling can help to ease the passage from one culture to the shock of entry into another. Application for a visa might even be associated or linked with participation in one of these (muti-heritage) courses.

Progression through time Another way of viewing the development of “multi-heritage societies” is to regard it as some sort of progression along the lines: patrimonialism, positivism, marginality, developmentalism (temporal), mestizaje-ism, multiculturalsm, multi-heritage and thus to various future-isms.

17.International infrastructure open to all The Latin American Education Network is not designed as a new or separate association but as “international infrastructure” (a public highway) open to all. The network welcomes the closest possible cooperation and collaboration with other Latin Americanist and Latin Americanist organisations (see, for example, proposals for a Peruvian Education Network). Although prepared for Latin America-Europe, it is thought that the infrastructure (the internet webpages) and the content (e.g. the archives) will be of interest to many worldwide.

18. Summary The scheme is not distance education but distance access to learning materials in various media with local mentoring (tutoring), plus a dynamic system for sharing and the feeding back into the network oof quality materials developed by study groups. The learning scheme is designed for: (1) Latin Americans and Latin Americanists in Europe; (2) Others in Europe interested (or with interests) in Latin America; (3) May also be of interest to many in Latin America and particularly to the extended families in Latin America of Euro-Latin Americans. In general The Latin American(ist) Education Network (RELA), the subject of this proposal, seeks to facilitate (1) access to (and the production and distribution of) learning materials for different learning environments (situations) and provide (2) a system for organising tutoring or mentoring (extra-curricular education). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to pay tribute to all who have helped and inspired this project – and there have been hundreds, from individuals to associations and government bodies. This one paper omits much that should be included. We also acknowledge the value of the discussions at this and other conferences – in particular the contributions of the other members (C. Espinoza, K. Paerregaard, U. J.Zavallos) of our session of this panel titled “La migración peruana en diversos contextos”.

Summary in Spanish ~ Resumen en castellano

1. El objetivo de la Red Educativa Latinoamericana (RELA-Europa) es ampliar las oportunidades educacionales de los latinoamericanos y sus familias en Europa. Los materiales de educación serían también para beneficio de los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos y serviría para el uso de europeos en América Latina y otros quienes estuvieren interesados, o tengan interés en América Latina: organizaciones voluntarias, latinoamericanistas, diplomáticos, gente de negocios, turistas, estudiantes y otros. 2. La literatura, el cine, la música, la poesía, las visitas virtuales a sitios históricos, la televisión, la radio, la cátedras universitarias serían divulgadas vía RELA de una forma moderna (mp3, mp4, etc.). 3. Los materiales serian preparados en América Latina, Europa y/o por latinoamericanistas en otras áreas, y podrían ser desarrollados y distribuidos de forma que fuesen usadas, por ejemplo, en el hogar, en asociaciones culturales, centros comunales, colegios, universidades (en casos donde, de momento, no existan estudios latinoamericanos), embajadas, consulados, lugares de trabajo, por individuos durante por ejemplo durante largos viajes en transporte público, y por otros grupos. 4. Padres de familia y asociaciones de latinoamericanos en Europa jugarían un rol importante en el esquema RELA, como también la red de mentores voluntarios y/o tutores pagados. 5. Tres departamentos de los gobiernos jugaría un papel vital. Bibliotecas nacionales y museos en la propuesta podrían actuar como fuentes principales de los recursos o como respaldo (backup) a los servidores de la red. 6. Especiales redes de idiomas reforzarían los lenguajes tradicionales. (Redes en Europa entre por ejemplo Aymará-hablantes, Quechua-hablantes y lenguas habladas en el trópico (oriente) del país). 7. Los grupos de aprendizaje del RELA tendrían entre sí miembros en el campo y en las ciudades de América Latina tanto como en Europa, lo que les permitiría un beneficio mutuo. 8. Las asociaciones departamentales y provinciales en América Latina tendrían un distinto rol en el campo educativo. Universidades locales latinoamericanas podrían ofrecer cursos o cátedras en Europa a un costo razonable. 9. En resumen, RELA no es un sistema de educación a larga distancia, más bien, es un sistema de acceso a materiales de aprendizaje en varios formas (media) a través de Internet, grupos de estudio y tutores locales.

For further details, see the project proposal document on the following pages or click

Table of Contents

Diagram 1. The objectives of the Latin American Education Network (RELA-Europe) 2. Resources What should the programme cover? Bolivian and Peruvian Networks. 3. The educational website 4. Global restructuring. Consejo Britanico, centros culturales y gobiernos 5. The role of academic specialists - Peruvianists / Bolivianists 6. Parents and cultural associations Examples: Family experience in Europe. 7. Cooperation of the public and private sectors Academic Qualifications 8. TV and Film Peruvian and Bolivian cultural and educational television in Europe Peruvian and Bolivian film in Europe 9. National libraries and museums Collections & connections to collections 10. Study groups (grupos de aprendizaje) Network of study groups, tutors and professors Study Groups and Circles. Getting started Family Groups or study groups with members in different countries Language networks would reinforce traditional languages Peruvians and Bolivians in Chile and Argentina 11. Departmental and provincial associations 12. Latin Americans in Europe Language Circles. Languages of Latin America and Europe 13. Essential elements 14. Where the materials are going to be used. 15. The resources gap: Peruvians in Europe and Europeans in Peru El Puente. Continuing education for those migrating Basis for cost effective “open university” 16. Philosophies behind the project - theory and concepts. Divergent and convergent theories regarding archipiélagos culturales. 17. International infrastructure open to all 18. Summary Acknowledgements Summary in Spanish ~ Resumen en castellano ENDNOTES