Academic Publishing Wiki
This article has been submitted to the Language Journal at
Note: for copies of this article or derivative works based on all or part of this article, the GNU Free Documentation License applies. Offline copies of this article and any offline derived works must include copies of the wiki history information associated with this article. Online copies of this article and online derivative works should either include the wiki history information associated with this article or a direct hypertext link back to this web page:
This article has been marked by its first author as being available for minor editing. If this article has been associated with a particular journal, be sure you know and follow the rules for editing that are used by that journal. If you are on the "leave me alone" list of the first author, your past editing has been judged to be undesirable and unwelcome. Take the hint.

Title Page[]

Aid and Commentary on Remarks 1 to 142 of the PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS:
First author:Robert Parr
Leave me alone list: -empty-

  1. The wikicities username of Robert Parr is Parrwiltt.
  2. This article is the second in a series of articles called "Reading the Philosophical Investigations: a Commentary and Aid". The first article in this series is "Before reading the Philosophical Investigations: a Necessary Context".

Wittgenstein counters the most common and usually unspoken theory of language ("individual words in language name objects---sentences are combination of such name----In this picture of language we find the roots of the following idea: every word has a meaning. This meaning is correlated with the word. It is the object for which the word stands."). He does not propose another theory: he looks at the actual way language is used. He uses descriptions, not explanations and simple, made up languages to point out why the common theory is completely implausable. He is a patient teacher, using simple methods and repetition to disabuse deeply ingrained "tendencies to misunderstand" At no. 65 to 67 he puts forth a new idea of meanings of words that have "family resemblances" instead of "something they all have in common" an essence or a abstraction. Meaning as family resemblances shows that clear and distinct boundaries are the exception and not the rule. (67 to 80)

Additional pages[]


This article is a working preliminary draft, NOT yet submitted for peer review. Leave your comments on the discussion page (talk page) or contact the First Author, Parrwiltt, at their talk page or by email.