Academic Publishing Wiki
History of Peru . . . . . Introduction

The History of Peru Project[]

Below is the latest version (see Edit/history for date) of the Learning Pack (Sample theme: First Cities and The Dawn of Urbanization). As much feed back as possible would be appreciated (particularly - directly or indirectly - from children and young people). Most of these materials may/can be edited by yourselves adapting them to your precise needs or those of your family or your R&S (research and study / tutorial) group. For example, the materials titled 'My First History of Peru' are in English and on many sheets Spanish, there is often space for a third or fourth language and you may like to customize this so the languages of the documents include those of your family, the school and/or the region you live in.

The learning pack for the theme 'First Cities' comprises[]

1. Eager beaver simplified visual history series (first sample only) for younger people, language learners and others.[]

This currently is a Word or PDF document in the "My First History of Peru" series: First towns/cities (ciudades) and the dawn of urbanization" This is sent to coordinators of R&S groups and some trial panels (guineau pigs!) via email as an attached "My First History of Peru version 4.doc".

2. A middlebrow (non-specialist) series in English for anglophones* in Peru and Peruvians in anglophone countries (there are 58) and of course anyone who has access to internet.[]

This is published by the Peruvian Times from Lima via the website [1]. To date the Peruvian Times has published ten parts covering the period (very approximately) 3000 BC to 500 AD. There are many associated articles from the PT some going back to 100 years ago - all in English. The articles are donated to the public domain and form the initial versions of the opentext articles in The Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies - see Item 4.

3. The relevant Sucedió en el Perú video (in Spanish) and associated article[]

Choose Caral from the menu below.

4. The Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies article 'History Series 1: The Dawn of Urbanization'[]


5. BBC film on Caral (English video with Spanish subtitles).[] film on Caral or direct [3]

6. Links to other public domain (free) materials:[]

There are other sources of materials which are accessible and can be found by, looking in Zotero, specifically the group Peru Studies. Google Zotero.

7. A short introduction to the use of Zotero is available under the Arguedas Scholar Scheme.[]

Please write to this e-mail with any further questions. (Via the discussion page) English version, Spanish version.

We hope that some, or all, of these may be of interest. You can help the scheme by sharing the edits you make which may be of use to others.

Best wishes,

History of Peru Project

Any queries can be sent to Paul Goulder and Andrea Zuñiga

Start of old (prior to April 2011) History of Peru Page - see Edit / history tab above)[]


Install the "Bridgebuilder" collection of software.[]

These pages work best when using the Mozilla Firefox web browser and its add-ons Zotero and Coldview. If these are installed (see below) you can place the mouse pointer over (don't click) any of the highlighted links and footnotes to view/read the content. Zotero helps to share library collections, form joint study and research groups as well as doing bibliographic management and print-outs etc.

Example: annoyed by adverts?[]

To check whether Coldview or another "link-viewer" is working, place the mouse-pointer over a highlighted word or phrase / or over the "blue and white diagonal P (Preview) symbol (you choose which in Coldview preferences)". For example place the mouse-pointer over "template" or its preview symbol in the following sentence "A template may be used to say sorry to viewers that, for the moment, we have to accept advertising." A template is something that may be copied and pasted onto (almost) any page.

Example: other templates[]

Other examples of templates are the "contents" and "title" templates (which should be?) used at the top of the article (all articles?). Yet others are indexed (listed) under T (mouseover "contents" then click on "Index" OR click on "Index" in contents-menu at the top of the page. E.g. The "Caveat" template is a marker or flag which you can attach to any text which you consider "dodgy". Other "flag templates" are "citation needed" and "clarification needed / clarify".

Example: to read an original source[]

In OJPS this is facilitated by the "Bridgebuilder" package. Example - Huaman Poma de Ayala records that the Inca found it difficult to believe that the Spaniards attached so much importance to gold ... Do you eat gold? (See page 371 of Human Poma 1615). Mouseover on the "diagonal P sign" or on the highlighted link (you can choose which go to Zotero / Actions (cog-wheel in the top menus of the Zotero window)/ Support and documentation).

The purpose of Bridgebuilder in brief[]

The "Bridgebuilder" programme supports the formation of collaborative research and study groups. In the case of these pages on the "History of Peru" the programme is designed initially for collaboration between students and subject-specialists in Peru and those abroad - in the wide field of history.[1]

Downloads and base-pages[]

Portuguese and Spanish Speakers in the UK[]

Link to the wider programme[]

See programme for Portuguese and Spanish Speakers in the UK.


This introduction to the history of Peru goes on to answer the questions raised in the preface but first, so that we can see ahead a list of the topics, the a-la-carte menu, from which - in the second section - you can develop the customised tutorials for yourself and/or your group.

  • Early complex societies Caral.
  • Chavín: El Formativo / The formative period.
  • Mochica y Nazca . Primer Intermedio / The first intermediate period.
  • El Tahuantinsuyu / The Incas.
  • La Conquista / The conquest.
  • Virreynato. Economía y Sociedad / Viceroyalty, economy and society.
  • Las Reformas Borbónicas / The Bourbon reforms.
  • Túpac Amaru, el gran rebelde / Tupac Amaru, the great rebel.
  • El Perú Independiente / Independent Peru.
  • Confederación Perú – Boliviana / the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.
  • El Guano, las economías de exportación / Guano, the export economies.
  • La guerra del Pacífico / the Pacific (Nitrates) War.
  • El Perú en la Segunda Guerra Mundial / Peru of the Second World War.
  • Perú. Economía y Tributación / Peru. Economy and taxation.
  • Women in Peru.
  • Bomberos en el Perú / the fire service in Peru.

This history of Peru is based on and around Antonio Zapata's well-known TVPeru series Sucedio en el Peru. There is at least one of Toni's TVPeru videos in each lead article. The History of Peru - which in opentext format - also comes equipped with a series of workshops (talleres) producing artwork, images, "templates" and access to a set of library resources and customised tutorials. The first template is called Template:History masthead.

History: Sucedió en el Perú

If you would like to design a better title banner or masthead you can modify the existing one. You make it like this, by opening the "edit mode" page or by making a new one called for the moment Template:HistoryMasthead_New (Click). REMEMBER: if you change a template, the text will automatically change in all the webpages using the template.

FAST TRACK Click on La Conquista to skip the next sections on resources and historiography and fast-forward to 1532. Or help to develop pages on the early "complex societies" in Peru. Click on Caral: approximately 5000 years ago".

The second template is named Template:HistoryContents and helps viewers navigate around the website. Your new page will automatically be indexed if you place {{Category:History of Peru}} at the foot of your page. Check by clicking "Index".

For a full list of templates click Index and select Template:Page under "T" or see Other templates in the table of contents below.

The problem of language[]

The videos are in Spanish and you are invited to start up or improve a translation in your local language so this opentext History of Peru can be understood by most people where you live. This History was initially directed to those watching TVPeru, the National TV channel in Peru and these pages - mainly in English - will be of use in Ireland, the UK, Malta, and other Anglophone countries and areas where English is understood.

Most reader-viewers on our initial email lists are bilingual. If you spot incomplete (sometimes non-existant!) or incorrect transcriptions and translations flag them up. The same goes for any other text or images. If you have time edit the text, your contribution will be acknowledged in the log (Click History tab at top of the page). You can discuss points in the discussion area (Click Discussion tab) and in the parallel blog (not yet activated - you can do this for the page or topic you are writing on).

The original text of the video's narrative together with a version in English should be placed alongside the video.

Other templates[]

Another template which is useful if pasted onto pages with videos is the Template:Timer which advises how to find text in a video.


Note 00.04 (example) = the time in minutes on the video counter. This should be stable across all the versions. You can use the timer to locate particular text. If your Spanish is not completely fluent use the Spanish text to help your understanding of the soundtrack. If you are bilingual help to improve the English transcriptions - of the interviews - and translations.

Incidentally, if you are not using one already and you want to keep track of all the sources, references, webpages, books and other media you come across try "Zotero" or similar software. The following is a template you can paste onto your own page to inform others and perhaps remind yourself about "reference management software". Template:Webpage and references management

To follow this research and study system you may find that it is easier to use Google Notebook, superceded by Google Wikisearch Jan 2009 and/or software similar to Zotero which is a free and easy-to-use aid when you need to collect, manage, and cite your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself. (But only if you use a Firefox browser which is worth downloading for free). This is Template:Webpage_and_references_management.

For a full list of templates click Index and select Template:Page under "T" or see the list below.


Who are these pages written for // para quien son estas páginas?
For all. The part of the page dealing with resources, library collections, etc is not tailored to - or directed to - any particular "profile" of reader / viewer / student / researcher . . . It is intended as a database and list of sources for those researchers and students interested in this period. The second part of these pages are more specific and just for small groups or one-to-one. Browse down the page to the sections of research groups and tutorials to find material focusing on the study needs of particular groups. Tutorial 1 is directed to Peruvians in Europe.
You can edit existing pages or add text, images, videos etc. This is known as OCE - Open Collaborative Editing. This is Template:ForWhom



Template:Fact [citation needed]


Apologies in advance about adverts on these pages. For now these pages are supported by advertisements which are, for many reader-viewers, distracting and at times offensive. As you may know the adverts are outside the control of the Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies. They are apparently chosen by some formula as being "appropriate to the page". Clearly the formula does not always work. Side menu column. At this stage the menu column is not particularly useful as it serves all the journal titles in the academia.wikia domain. Note also experimental use of the peruearthquake.wikia domain and others (see text in article on Paracas). Template. This is a template which may be used in any article and is in the category History of Peru.

Template:Tutorials classes

Where can I do Peruvian History?
Almost no university, college or school in the United Kingdom teaches pure specialist History of Peru. The exceptions being University of Liverpool, Cambridge, . . (Click on Category:History of Peru to go to the Index page. Then select the template - "Template:Tutorials_classes". On the template click Edit this page to update, add, delete these entries). And that is exactly the point of this online collaborative history of Peru: to have as near a complete collection of study and research resources on specialised topics and a space for academic collaboration within the theme of the History of Peru, such that non-specialised profs from a variety of disciplines may work with you on a tailored (customised) learning scheme, project, dissertation etc. Please add your details (here - can this be made a field??) if you would like to join the Peruvian History Initiative. Example - a Latin American studies lecturer, a secondary school history teacher - a student whose parents came from Peru, students who visited Peru in their gap year. Template. This is a template which may be used in (pasted into) any article and is in the category History of Peru.


Previewing a linked webpage reference whilst staying on your main webpage references or bibliography

If a mouseover previewer such as CoolPreview is installed, place the mouse pointer over the "diagonal P sign on a blue background - a bit like a toppled parking sign" (in the case of CoolPreview) in order to view the linked page without leaving the page you are on. (Alt colour yellow = #FFFF00, pale blue=#E6E6FA). This is Template:Mouseover previewer Click to edit.

Many ways of writing history[]

Collaborative history[]

This series uses a collaborative approach [2] based on and around the TVPeru (National Television) series Sucedio en el Perú. Note that the videos are in Spanish. If you find that the video you want to watch has not been translated, help to produce versions in your national or regional language: English, Catalan, Italian, French, German, Japanese . . . and add explanatory notes if you wish. For one way of doing this see script on the Conquest (La Conquista). You need to be able to play Flash videos or YouTube videos. Readers can add content to most of the pages. You can design and share your own tutorial - for yourself, for your group (see tutorials below). You can also add new pages on new topics [create new page]. If you are not sure about the contribution you would like to make or would just like to make a suggestion click Discussion tab at top of page.

Reasons for this approach[]

Historians and history[]

Sometimes the historian is as significant as the history itself. History comes to be retold or reframed. There have been watersheds, milestones (hitos) in the writing of history.

Watersheds: Jorge Basadre[]

For many Basadre had been the best known historian of the "generation of the 20's" - "Basadre perteneció a la generación del 20, una de las generaciones más brillantes y prolíficas que ha tenido el Perú del siglo XX.


SeeP - Jorge Basadre - Bloque 1

Forman parte de ella José Carlos Mariátegui Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Luis Alberto Sánchez, Manuel Seoane, Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Jorge Guillermo Leguía, Honorio Delgado, Manuel Abastos, entre otros. Es la llamada generación de la Reforma Universitaria." For an overall appreciation see López Jiménez, Sinesio "Basadre: historiador, bibliotecario y ministro[3]." Note that this is in Spanish.[4] Or for a series of videos on Basadre click watch

"Sucedió en el Perú - Basadre".( Watch in separate window). See also Problems in Historiography below.

Other milestones[]


The Biblioteca Nacional as the central resource[]

All documents published in Peru should by law be deposited in the Biblioteca Nacional. The problem is that not all are and this problem is agravated by the fact that many well researched and relevant documents about Peru are not published in Peru. Compare the entries in the Biblioteca Nacional online catalogue with those in the WorldCat, in that of the British Library . . . or that of the Universidad Católica in Lima (one of the best collections in the field of history). The problem in the case of this Opentext History of Peru is to determine at what point articles become "published" and whether a virtual document accessed from an apparently anonymous internet server is effectively "published in Peru".

See also section on Virtual (online) Libraries in La Conquista.

There are of course many ways of interpreting and focusing on these resources, many ways of delivering courses and each reader, viewer, student, tutor or user will have a particular set of requirements. So each topic or article could have a variety of tutorials. Each topic or article therefore has a section on "Resources" (available to all) and a section on "Research and Tutorials" (customised). This collaborative history depends on each student or group of students (tutorial group) adding their own "model" of a tutorial so that others do not have to reinvent the wheel.


Accessibility of documents[]

The material comes in two parts (A) Resources and (B) Tutorials. We hope that - eventually - (A) Resources will contain, in addition to the videos, a complete list of accessible (online or widely available) documents relating to the topic or period (or links to websites where the documents' contents may be viewed). Publishers (private or corporate) of documents containing data obtained in Peru have a legal obligation to deposit copies of the work with the Peruvian National Library, if the intention is to publish in Peru. Donation certificates will be given for other publications given to the Library. It is hoped that all (A) Resources [5] will be archived at the National Library of Peru (BNP) and viewable from secure backup and mirror websites. The most comprehensive index to resources is currently the University of Texas and the most comprehensive collection that of the joint libraries of the University of California. In Europe Berlin probably* has the greatest overall collection. (The Ibero-American Institute at the Potsdamer Platz in the heart of Berlin.) We hope that where it comes to Peruvian materials that the BNP will be able to house comparable collections and that this 'History of Peru' project will be able to aid that aim.

Problems in historiography[]

There has been, over the last few decades, a opening-up of the ways of doing history, of writing about the past. This tendency has provided greater space for other voices to be heard. For a discussion of recent trends in ways of writing histories see López, Sinesio La reinvención de la historia de abajo; Drinot, Paulo After the Nueva Historia: Recent Trends in Peruvian Historiography which provides a good overview of trends in Peruvian historiography during the last few decades; or Drinot, Paulo (University of Oxford) Historiography, Historiographic Identity and Historical Consciousness in Peru. On the specifics of reading early Spanish sources see Julien, Catherine [ Reading Inca History

Wider fields[]

There has been a tendency not only to find space for more voices but also to widen the approach or methodologies involved. tFor example in applying multidisciplinary approaches - social science with history, statistical methods with history, economics and history and one that this author has emphasised - development studies and history (see tutorials below). See also Dávalos y Lissón, Pedro, (1863-1942) "La primera centuria: causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente." published in 1919.

Peru-sources in the public (collaboratively editable) domain[]

There are now substantial resources in the public domain but with a wide spread of quality. Most are not peer-reviewed and many are not signed or it is not easy to determine the author.

Why not volunteer to be a "mediator" - to check over wikipedia articles in the "Peru" category, not to censor or delete, but just to flag-up when an extra citation is needed, when a section needs clarification (when it is not understandable by the average Joe) or when transcriptions and translations fall down.

The main family of articles concerning Peru is to be found listed at Parents: Andean Community of Nations | Countries bordering the Pacific Ocean | Parent categories | South American countries. Note specifically the category "History of Peru"  (If a mouseover previewer such as CoolPreview is installed, place the mouse pointer over the "diagonal P sign on a blue background in the case of CoolPreview" - a bit like a toppled parking sign - in order to view the linked page without leaving the page you are on.)

[−] Peru (22)

  • [+] Peru portal (0)
  • [+] Buildings and structures in Peru (24)
  • [+] Communications in Peru (2)
  • [+] Peruvian culture (23)
  • [+] Economy of Peru (10)
  • [+] Education in Peru (5)
  • [+] Environment of Peru (5)
  • [+] Geography of Peru (13)
  • [+] Government of Peru (8)
  • [+] Health in Peru (3)
  • [+] History of Peru (16)
  • [+] Peruvian law (6)
  • [+] Metropolitan areas of Peru (0)
  • [+] Military of Peru (5)
  • [+] Peru-related lists (0)
  • [+] Peruvian people (15)
  • [+] Politics of Peru (8)
  • [+] Science and technology in Peru (4)
  • [+] Peruvian society (11)
  • [+] Transportation in Peru (10)
  • [+] Images of Peru (0)
  • [+] Peru stubs (3)

What is a stub?[]

You create a new page or article: Yor give it a title. You write a short piece and maybe correct it several times or add something to it and you write "stub" and then "still stub" or "stub continued" in the "Summary" boxes. That's your STUB - which you hope will inspire many collaborators to "improve".

Cross references: articles in the History of Peru - wikipedia[]

The index of the category: History of Peru.

The "History" wikia[]

Watch these webpages also.

Further sections in preparation[]

Please list articles you are working on but are not yet prepared to unleash on the population at large (so that the wheel is not reinvented).


There is space for telling as many as possible of the stories in Peruvian history! Include a record of your recent tutorial under a relevant topic heading. History of Peru (in English) is designed to be sufficiently flexible to be of use to all English-speakers interested in the theme. It does this by accessing the new and rapidly expanding digital resources - see (A) Resources - and by forming as many specialised tutorial groups as necessary - see (B) Tutorials (sometimes called classes, learning groups, study groups, project groups, research groups . . . ) below.

Specialised tutorials / research groups (new materials are / should be sent by email to group members - usually 1-9 in number). Current themes / mailings include: Peruvian women in history, Afroperuvian history, Diplomatic history, History of Peruvian diaspora, History of Peruvian literature, British Peruvian history, French Peruvian history, History of Peruvian music and dance, History of Peruvian Art , Peruvian social history, Peruvian economic history, Ideas in Peruvian history . . .

"General Peruvian History" and "Writing projects, dissertations and presentations on Peru" are not mailed but included on the History pages.

Materials developed in tutorials are shared internationally via the "Tutorials" space for each topic. Summaries should be provided in Spanish.

Teachers of history and associated subjects - where they have one or more student(s) with Peruvian heritage - are encouraged to set up a self-administered "tutorial" or "research" group.

Topics which are open for collaborative editing[]

Caral, La Conquista, La Conquista 2, La Conquista 3, La Conquista 4, La Conquista 5.

Topics which are waiting page creation[]

Caral (See Above); Chavín: El Formativo; Moche Nazca, Intermedio temprano; El Tahuantinsuyu; La Conquista (See above); Virreynato; Economía y Sociedad ; Las Reformas Borbónicas; Túpac Amaru, el gran rebelde; El Perú Independiente; Confederación Perú – Boliviana; El Guano, las economías de exportación; La guerra del Pacífico; El Perú en la Segunda Guerra Mundial; Perú, Economía y Tributación. 25 Oct 2009 Preface | Intro| Index Introduction to Bridgebuilder


25 Oct 2009 Preface | Intro| Index Introduction to Bridgebuilder

01 Nov 2009

08 Nov 2009 Caral

15 Nov 2009

22 Nov 2009 Chavín

29 Nov 2009

06 Dec 2009 Moche-Nazca

13 Dec 2009

20 Dec 2009 Wari-Tihuanaco (no video yet)

27 Dec 2009

03 Jan 2010 Special topic (the Khipu)

10 Jan 2010

17 Jan 2010 Incas

24 Jan 2010

31 Jan 2010 Conquest

07 Feb 2010

14 Feb 2010 Viceroyalty

21 Feb 2010 28 Feb 2010 Bourbon Reforms

07 Mar 2010

14 Mar 2010 Special topic (the 1746 Lima Earthquake)

21 Mar 2010

28 Mar 2010 Tupac Amaru

04 Apr 2010

11 Apr 2010 Independence

18 Apr 2010

25 Apr 2010 Confederation and caudillo wars

02 May 2010

09 May 2010 Special topic - select from website

16 May 2010

23 May 2010 Guano

30 May 2010

06 June 2010 Nitrates War

13 June 2010

20 June 2010 WW2

27 June 2010

04 July 2010 Economy


  1. (currently being redrafted) Bridgebulder has been inspired by projects at San Agustin, Berkeley, La Católica, Kings College London, LMU and others. . . which has as its objective the encouragement and practical dissemination of open learning and specialist research. The advantage of the Bridgebuilder package is that it is ready to go. It uses already developed software integrated with two of the most-popular "knowledge-sharing / Web sites" (Wkipedia and YouTube) . . . Bridgebuilder, historiography and methodologies in historical research. The basic method encouraged here is "evidence and further explanation included". Whereas the crie de coeur or more probably crie de guerre of Wikipedia is "citation needed", the norm for this part of academia-wikia (the Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies: OJPS) is or should be "not just to provide a reference or link to the citation" but to provide a copy of the evidence itself, whether a photo, a passage from a book or article, a filmed interview with a specialist . . . and to do this without having to click on a link.
  2. Utilising knowledge-sharing (Web 2.0) technologies: collaborative editing software, video-sharing networking etc.
  3. This has been moved to Oct 2009
  4. Help to produce a version in your national or regional language. Every paragraph counts.
  5. Almost all documents of more than 70 years can now be placed legally on Internet without infringing copyright law and there is now an expanding collection accessible by anyone with internet (i.e not everyone). The virtual library of the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú will be able to provide increasing access to collections.

Further Links[]

History of Peru - Academic Publishing Wiki - Collaborative history[]

This series uses a collaborative approach [1] based on and around the TVPeru (National Television) series Sucedio en el Perú. Note that the videos are in Spanish. If you find that the video you want to watch has not been translated, help to produce versions in your national or regional language: English, Catalan, Italian, French, German, Japanese . . . with explanatory notes. For one way of doing this see script on the Conquest (La Conquista). You need to be able to play Flash videos or YouTube videos. Readers can add content to most of the pages. You can design and share your own tutorial - for yourself, for your group (see tutorials below). You can also add new pages on new topics [create new page]. If you are not sure about the contribution you would like to make or would just like to make a suggestion click Discussion tab at top of page. Read more.

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu - UNESCO World Heritage Centre[]

Veiled Aeropolis/The Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

The ruins of Machu Picchu, an Inca city built in the mid-15th century, are in the Peruvian Andes of South America. Machu Picchu is located on a mountain ridge some 2,400 metres above sea level. It’s known as an “Aeropolis”. The main part of the site covers an area of around 9 hectares. It is believed that the city had a population of more than 500 people. The stone walls were built using highly sophisticated techniques. There are also the remains of a developed water system. Read more.

The Incas for Stage 3 history teachers[]

Why "The Incas" is a good topic for the National Syllabus (England) and the resources to do the job There’s loads of stuff about the Incas on the net: see ‘Inca websites’ below. This site is mainly for History teachers in England trying to make sense of the National Curriculum for September 2008! Read more - many valuable links.

End of article - just one thing about "palimpsest".[]


Have a go! Just click Edit this page.

Everyone can help. Every bit of information will come in useful. Just seen a film, read a book, come across a new webpage. Add it to the lists. Speak some Spanish . . . Quechua - revise the translations. Don't worry about damaging the pages! All the old copies are saved - like a palimpsest (\ˈpa-ləm(p)-ˌsest, pə-ˈlim(p)-\ ; noun; Latin palimpsestus, from Greek palimpsēstos scraped again, from palin + psēn to rub, scrape; akin to Sanskrit psāti, babhasti he chews;1825; 1 : writing material (as a parchment or tablet) used one or more times after earlier writing has been erased 2 : something having usually diverse layers or aspects apparent beneath the surface. Webster's dictionary). ... . This is Template:Palimpsest.