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History: Sucedió en el Perú

Topic: The Conquest of the Inca Empire. The invasion and occupation of Tawantinsuyu. Part 2 / Clip 2
Period: (arbitrary 1526 to 1572) 1526/7 (Death of Huayna Capac), 1526 (10 March Contract Almagro, Luque, Pizarro), 1532 (16 May Pizarro in Tumbes. 16 November Cajamarca), 1533 (26 July The taking of Atahualpa's life.) . . . 1572 (24 September Cuzco Execution of Tupac Amaru).

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Before you start out

Please read information on the Introduction and Index pages (History of Peru) . The page(s) which follows is divided into the following parts. 1. Resources, 2. Tutorials. For an extended bibliography on the period of the Conquest and after but focusing on Guaman Poma see

In brief - part 2[]

This clip deals with Atawalpa's war with the Cañaris where he is taken prisoner but then 'escapes as a snake' through the prison bars, as legend has it. There follows Huascar's defeats in the Inca civil wars and the reappearance (1531/32) of the Spaniards. Quisquis captures Cuzco for Atawalpa. Pizarro at Tumbes moves towards Cajamarca when Apo, sent by Atahualpa, appears in the Sechura desert. Gifts are sent to the Inca. Apo reappears as ambassador with gifts and an invitation. Atahualpa's plan to capture the Spanish horses and three specialists. The Spaniards enter Cajamarca - house themselves in 3 callancas. Hernandos Pizarro and de Soto go to Atahualpa - camped near the Baños. About the interpreters Felipillo y Martinillo.

The script - part 2 of La Conquista (the Conquest)[]

Atawalpa's war with the Cañaris. He is taken prisoner then 'escapes as a snake'. Huascar's defeats in the Inca civil wars.[]

Note 00.04 = the time in minutes on the video counter. This should be stable across all the versions. You can use the timer to locate particular text. If your Spanish is not completely fluent use the Spanish text to help your understanding of the soundtrack. If you are bilingual help to improve the English transcriptions - of the interviews - and translations.

00.04 Narrator continues.

Atahualpa fue derrotado en una primera batalla y cayó preso de los cañaris, que eran un grupo étnico cuyo territorio estaba situado en la sierra del actual Ecuador. Pero, esa misma noche Atahualpa se escapó de prisión. Luego, contó que se había transformado en serpiente ganando su libertad a través de los barrotes de la celda. De acuerdo a su versión, era un dios y por lo tanto era invencible. //

Atahualpa was defeated in an early battle and became a prisoner of the Cañaris, an ethnic group whose territory was located in the highlands of what is today Ecuador. But that night Atahualpa escaped from prison. He related how he had become a snake and had gained his freedom through the bars of the prison cell. According to his version he was a god and because of that he was invincible.

00.33 José Antonio del Busto

410px|left(In brief - transcription and translation needed.) Although Atawalpa was taken prisoner by the Cañaris, the fact is he escaped - the legend says as a serpent - and was free to fight on. Huascar experienced more defeats than Atawalpa.

00.52 Narrator continues.

Atahualpa logró dominar la muy cruenta guerra civil entre los incas y obtuvo una trabajosa victoria. Huascar había entregado el mando a varios generales que fueron vencidos, hasta que él mismo tomó la dirección de la guerra y el resultado fue peor para su causa, pues fue hecho prisionero. Ya era el fatídico año de 1532. //

Atahualpa managed to (dominate) the very brutal civil war between the Incas and achieved a hard-won victory. Huascar had given the command to several generals who had then been defeated. He then took over direction of the war himself with an outcome which was worse for his cause, for he was taken prisoner. It was the fateful year of 1532.

Reappearance of the Spaniards. Quisquis captures Cuzco for Atawalpa. Pizarro at Tumbes. Apo appears in the Sechura. Gifts sent to the Inca.[]

01.16 Narrator continues.

Estando en Cajamarca, Atahualpa fue informado de la reaparición de los 'hombres barbudos' que cruzaban el mar. Decidió detener su marcha triunfal al Cuzco y recibir a los extranjeros que tanto habían intrigado a su padre. La capital inca ha sido (estaba?) capturada por el general Quisquis, leal a Atahualpa, quien había desatado una feroz represión sobre el sector de la aristocracia cuzqueña fiel al inca derrotado. En Jauja, en medio del Tawantinsuyu, permanecía otro ejército de Atahualpa, al mando del general Calcuchimac. //

Whilst in Cajamarca, Atahualpa was informed of the reappearance of the 'hombres barbudos' (the men with beards) who (had) crossed the sea. He decided to halt his triumphal march to Cuzco and to receive the foreigners that had intrigued his father. The Inca capital has (already) been captured by General Quisquis loyal to Atahualpa, who had unleashed a ferocious repression on those of the aristocracy who had supported the defeated (Huascar) Inca in Cuzco. In Jauja in the centre of the Tawantinsuyu another army of Atahualpa was stationed, under the command of General Calcuchimac.

1.53 En el tercer viaje de la conquista, los españoles nuevamente desembarcaron en Tumbes y se trabaron en combates con los naturales. La tierra estaba desolada por la guerra civil entre los incas y ya no percibieron el orden y la amabilidad que encontraron durante el viaje anterior. Luego continuaron su marcha hacia el Piura actual. Cuando estaban cruzando (el desierto de) Sechura apareció un emisario de Atahualpa, iba disfrazado de indio del común. Se llamaba Apo y se mezcló entre los indios que seguían a la hueste hispana como porteadores y proveedores. Apo curioseó demasiado en el campamento de los españoles y movió la ira de Hernando Pizarro, quien era el único hidalgo de los cuatro hermanos Pizarro. Hernando pateó a Apo y al caer se desbarató el turbante que escondía sus grandes orejas. Fue identificado como orejón, miembro de la aristocracia inca. Al ponerse de pie, los indios cayeron postrados de hinojos. Los españoles tomaron conciencia que estaban ante un espía real y lo trataron de manera cuidadosa. Le entregaron una copa de cristal de Venecia y dos camisas de seda de como regalos para que lleve al Inca. //

On the third voyage of conquest, the Spaniards again landed in Tumbes. They engaged in battles with the inhabitants. The land was ravaged by the civil war between (factions of) the Incas. Unlike the previous voyage, the Spanish did not find the same degree of order and friendliness. They continued their march towards (what today is) Piura. When they were crossing the Sechura desert a messenger from Atahualpa appeared. He was disguised as an ordinary Indian. He was called Apo and mixed among the Indians who followed the Spanish soldiers as carriers and vendors. Apo was far too enquiring whilst in the Spanish camp and prompted the anger of Hernando Pizarro, who was the only hildago (gentleman / courteous p.) of the four brothers Pizarro. Hernando kicked at Apo and on falling the turban, which had hidden his large ears, came undone. Apo was identified as an Orejón (large–eared) or member of the Inca aristocracy. When he had stood up, the Indians fell prostrate on their knees. The Spanish realized that they were faced with a royal spy and treated him with caution. He was handed a goblet / glass of Venice crystal and two silk shirts (from India?) as gifts to take to the Inca.

'3.11 Los españoles llegaron hasta el actual Lambayeque y cuando se hallaban cerca de la cordillera retornó Apo. Esta vez vino como embajador, era portado en andas y traía el regalo de Atahualpa. Este presente consistía en una maqueta de una fortaleza y tres patos desollados. Pizarro se mostró desconcertado e interpretó el regalo como una señal de que Atahualpa confiaba en sus fortalezas y que amenazaba con desollarlos. Asimismo, Apo los invitó a subir a Cajamarca para entrevistarse con el Inca que los quería recibir. //

Apo reappears as ambassador with gifts and an invitation. Atahualpa's plan to capture the Spanish horses and 3 specialists[]

The Spaniards advanced as far as the present-day Lambayeque and when they were near to the cordillera (mountain range) Apo returned. This time he came as ambassador, and was carried in a litter or sedan chair and had brought a gift from Atahualpa, which consisted of a model of a fortress and three skinned ducks. Pizarro was taken aback and interpreted the gift as a sign that Atahualpa was confident in his strength and was threatening to harm them. Furthermore, Apo invited them to Cajamarca to meet the Inca who indicated that he wished to receive them.

3.50 Mientras tanto, Apo se había reunido con Atahualpa, informándole lo que había visto y juntos elaboraron un plan, que consistía en apoderarse de los caballos. El pool genético animal del Tawantinsuyu era bastante limitado, porque no había ningún animal mayor susceptible de ser montado o puesto a arar. Toda la agricultura y el transporte eran a pie. Los camélidos eran espléndidos animales, pero no estaba mal apoderarse de nuevas bestias que faciliten la vida económica y política del Tawantinsuyu. Los perros eran peligrosos, porque los había visto comer carne, pero los caballos le movieron confianza porque eran herbívoros.

(04.35) Efraín Trelles. (This section not yet transcribed or translated - when working on this save your work online regularly so that other potential editors, transcribers or translators can see that you are working on it and where you have got to - delete this sentence when done.) Atahualpa was going to save three of the Spaniards with specific skills. . . . in order to keep the horses.

05.53 Narrator continues. Para apropiarse de los caballos dejaron entrar a los españoles y no los acabaron en cualquiera de los pasos de la cordillera. No les temían. Atahualpa se sentía hijo del Sol y, en tanto dios personificado, pensaba que su majestad sometería a cualquier mortal. Atahualpa vivía un momento particular de su vida, porque estaba exaltado por su victoria sobre Huascar y no tomó precauciones, sino que enfrentó los acontecimientos poseído por una fe ciega en su magnificencia.

To seize the horses they the Incas would let the Spaniards enter (Cajamarca) and not finish with them in one of the several mountain passes through which they would journey. The Incas were not afraid. Atahualpa was the son of the Sun and, as such the personification of God. It was thought that his majesty could not submit to any mortal. Atahualpa was at a special moment in his life because he was exalted by his victory over Huascar and did not take precautions, but faced events transfixed by a blind faith in his own magnificence. (translation too literal - edit)

06.26 José Antonio del Busto Tenía una voluntad extraordinariamente . . . si el decía que los pájaros no vuelen . . . los pajaros no volaban . . . porque se ordinaban todos los indios de Cuzco matan . . .el dia siguiente no hubieran . . . (translation incomplete).

The Spaniards enter Cajamarca - housed in 3 callancas. Hernandos Pizarro and de Soto go to Atahualpa - near the Baños. The interpreters Felipillo y Martinillo.[]

06.47 Narrator continues. La hueste española entró a Cajamarca; de acuerdo a lo convenido con Apo, la ciudad estaba prácticamente abandonada y la plaza vacía. Pero, durante la entrada, en cada nueva elevación, los españoles observaron tiendas, pertrechos y campamentos militares. Una vez en Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro dispuso a su gente en tres grupos, guarecidos en las grandes habitaciones que daban a la plaza, denominadas “callancas”. En la más espaciosa ubicó a la caballería al mando de su hermano Hernando Pizarro y de otro Hernando, apellido de Soto 07.20 (que luego fue conquistador - silent) de infantería estaba con él, en otra callanca de la plaza. Luego, envió una misión de veinte jinetes al mando de los dos Hernandos para entrevistarse con Atahualpa e invitarlo a venir a conversar a la plaza.//

The Spanish column went to Cajamarca; as agreed with Apo, the city was virtually abandoned and the square empty. But, when they entered, each new ¿¿elevation¿, the Spaniards noted shops, stores and military camps. Once in Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro ordered his men into three groups garrisoned in large constructions called "callancas” that gave out onto the plaza / square. In the most spacious area he put the cavalry commanded by his brother Hernando Pizarro and the other Hernando - surname “de Soto” – the conquistador of Florida. The infantry was with him, another callanca of the square. Then he sent a detachment of twenty horsemen under the command of the two Hernandos to meet Atahualpa and ¿invite¿ him to come and talk in the plaza.

07.33 Los jinetes viajaron a los Baños del Inca, donde Atahualpa tenía su campamento real. Allí los recibió sentado en una alfombra y con la cabeza mirando al suelo. No les dirigió ni una mirada. No hablan la misma lengua, estaban incomunicados, salvo por dos intérpretes, Felipillo y Martinillo, ambos indios adolescentes raptados en ocasión del viaje anterior, que apenas dominaban ambos idiomas, puesto que ninguno de ellos era el suyo materno. Los intérpretes eran jóvenes comerciantes costeños que estando en una balsa habían sido raptados por los conquistadores. Ellos los había llevado hasta España y ahora retornaban como personajes cruciales de la empresa de conquista: los primeros mensajeros.// (08.21)

The riders travelled to the Baños del Inca (The spa / springs / thermal baths), where Atahualpa had his actual camp. There he received them sitting on a carpet and with his head bowed / looking downwards. He did not even glance at them. They did not speak the same language, were incommunicado except for the two interpreters Felipillo and Martinillo two Indians kidnapped as adolescents during the previous trip, that were not completely fluent in either language, as neither Spanish nor Cuzco-Quechua were their mother tongue. The interpreters were young coastal traders who were on a raft (explain balsa: Quechua) which had been captured by the conquerors. They had been taken to Spain and now were returning as key people in the enterprise of conquest: the first messengers.

End Clip 2. These clips are, in part, illustrated with images taken from Guaman Poma (see Box 1.)

Box 1. Guaman Poma Website[]

GPA371 Drawing147 - El Ynga pregunta al español qué come - El español responde -Este oro comemos

[ Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala: El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (1615/1616) København, Det Kongelige Bibliotek, GKS 2232 4°] is one of the few early texts written by a Quechua-speaking Peruvian and the only one to be substantially illustrated. It was brought to the attention of the public in 1908. Shown is a fragment of the initial illustration in the "Chapter" on the "Spanish conquest and the civil wars". No 147 on page 371. The dialogue is between Pedro de Candía and Wayna Khapaq Inca - as follows: transl. Este oro comemos. The page carries the footnote: Aquí Guaman Poma confunde varios datos relacionados. Pedro de Candía apreció las riquezas del Inka en Tumbes, no en el Cuzco, durante la expedición de 1527. No se entrevistó con Huayna Capac, pero fue éste quien hizo construir allí el templo del sol que tanto impresionó a Candía. El uso de “español” para el griego Candía no refleja necesariamente el desconocimiento de Guaman Poma de la nacionalidad del artillero; como en otras ocasiones, Guaman Poma empleará el término con el sentido de “no-indio”. Véase la nota, p. 369. El episodio de Candía lo relata también el Inca Garcilaso siguiendo la versión de Cieza de León (Garcilaso [1617], libro I, cap. xiii, 1960 : p. 32 - see bibliography on website).