## Technical process

- Begin with the following assumptions:

- Kirchoff's Circuit Laws and the Law of Conservation of Energy, Conservation of Angular Momentum, and Conservation of Momentum are basically true.
- The mathematics of conventional theory surpass conventional scientific understanding.

- Attempt to connect generally applicable formulas within the classical theory of electromagnetism in a way that appears practical to engineers.
- As this is a mechanical theory intended to have real applications, decide whether if there are qualitative and quantitative asymmetries between different notions of power and energy.
- Aside from its practical application, show that the theory is consistent with a way to understand how energy is mechanically used up in the universe and the consequences that result from that.

## Quantities

**physical measure**

**zeroth time derivative***first time derivative**second time derivative*

**time**

**change in time**

**distance**

**change in distance**- velocity
- acceleration

- velocity

**energy**

**change in energy***power*- change in power per change in time

**angle**

**change in angle***angular velocity*- angular acceleration

**angular momentum**

**change in angular momentum***torque*- change in torque per change in time

## Conservation in closed systems

### Force = Potential flow of momentum

Force is defined as:

- , energy transfer per displacement
- , zeroth time derivative of momentum
- , first time derivative of momentum
- , zeroth time derivative of time

Facts about force:

- For every force, there is an equal and opposite force.
- A force of an item sitting on the ground does no work, and it is called the normal force.
- The strongest force, net of other forces, causes an item to translate faster or slower relative to some other item.

### Torque = Potential flow of angular momentum

Torque is defined as:

- , zeroth time derivative of angular momentum
- , first time derivative of angular momentum
- , zeroth time derivative of time

- When a primary item imposes upon a secondary item a force that is misaligned with the normal force, a torque is produced.
- The strongest torque, net of other torques, causes an item to rotate faster or slower.

### Work = Action through energy

#### Input

Work may be defined in the following way:

And accordingly, power is:

The equation shows that two conditions are necessary for **input** power to exist:

- , change in angular momentum
- , change in angle

This means:

- Work can only be done by acting upon rotating joints.
- When work is done, rotation is inevitable.
- When rotation does not exist, lack of work is inevitable.

#### Output

Work may also be defined in the following way:

And accordingly, power is:

The force, the time derivative of momentum, is:

The equation shows that for output power to exist:

- Option 1

- , transfer or change of mass
- , change in distance

- Option 2

- , existence of mass
- , acceleration

This means:

- Work can only be done when mass or changes in mass are involved.
- When work is done, displacement is inevitable.
- When mass can no longer exist, lack of potential work is inevitable.

#### The work itself

Kinetic energy is defined as:

- , mass
- , velocity

Facts about energy, kinetic vs. potential:

- The sum of kinetic and potential energies is a constant.
- Kinetic energy is produced by relative acceleration.
- Potential energy is produced by relative deceleration.

In reality, when an object is pushed over the ground, there is not only work done to the object being pushed over the ground, but work is being done on the ground itself. Because power=force*velocity, a balance of forces (from Newton's laws) between the three bodies (ground, pusher, pushed object), power must be evenly divided between two directions, in this case, the object pushed receives some amount of power, and the ground receives some amount of power as well. Thus only half the actual required power is manifested as a kinetic energy in the pushed object (1/2*mv^2). Thus there is a physical quantity that is double this (i.e. momentum*velocity) and is called *motional energy*. The concept of motional energy is used often in studies of entropy and it is compatible with Einstein's special theory of relativity. Thus, the work itself is:

## Cosmology

### Collapse of nebulae

When a charge is moving slowly, it tends to lack a large amount of electric flux. The moment it is disturbed, for example, by finding a path of lesser resistance, it is compelled in a direction in which it loses electrical potential energy and emits it outside that path of lesser resistance. Empty space and other poor conductors have very high resistance and while they resist the presence of charge, they have no problem accepting the transmission of magnetic fields or electromagnetic radiation. Such electromagnetic impulses can turbo electrical charges down the path of least resistance, a phenomenon which occurs near very large and bright stars experiencing early death within a relatively cold stellar nebula.

### Tendency to remain bounded

The tendency for particles to travel down the path of least resistance is the reason why particles accelerate as they travel from one medium to another, while decelerating upon traveling the way back. At the same time, while traveling in the new medium, a charge can be observed to moving slower than charges that are just entering. This is simply because the observer and the charge coexist in similar reference frame, in which both the relative velocity and relative acceleration are minimized.

### Inductive coupling causes both like and opposite charges to come together

The generation of circular flows of like fundamental particles generates magnetic moments, which then align, reinforcing the magnetic field generated by such like particles. When induced by the same magnetic field, positive charges will rotate in the opposite direction as negative charges. Thus, friction exists between the negative rotations of negative charges and positive rotation of positive charges. The dominant field strength of a magnetic dynamo, such as a star, reinforces the frictional attraction between positive and negative charges. The opposite angular momentum induced on the opposite charges will act against each other to produce clusters of sticky matter which leads to the formation of celestial bodies whose rotational velocity at each distance from the center of gravity is slower than the corresponding orbital velocity predicted by Newton's law of gravitation.

### Magnetic causes of time dilation

The novel precept here is that equations from conventional theory clearly implicate the influence that electric and magnetic fields have on time dilation:

Two generally accepted physics formula can be found, stating that:

- magnetic force/electric force=v^2/c^2

- time dilation due to velocity = sqrt(1/(1-v^2/c^2))

The simple deduction that can be made is as follows:

- time dilation due to velocity = sqrt(1/(1-magnetic force/electric force))

How then does the magnetic force increase? By increasing relative velocity between charges. In doing so, what is also implied? Increased kinetic energy of those charges. Thus, the derivation of kinetic energy is simultaneous to the production of magnetic forces. Kinetic energy of such charges is less impeded when motions of particles are aligned with each other. The connection between kinetic energy of charges and magnetism is evident in windy atmospheres of gas giants such as Jupiter and Saturn.

### Photons and matter contraction

Throughout the history of the universe, the intrinsic angular momentum of photons observed coming from distant galaxies do not deviate from others which come from nearby. So the distances of the photons' origins have no apparent effect on the angular momentum of photons.

Also, electric and magnetic fields do not affect electromagnetic radiation as they travel because all they do is cause it. The only thing they affect are things which have an electrical potential energy which is capable of changing, since a change of electrical field is required for it to do work with other electrical fields, so as to dispense some portion of its energy - as photons.

To conserve a photon's energy one must consider that:

- The energy of the photon (intrinsic unit) is not decreased at all from the point of view of a observer.
- The energy of the photon (intrinsic unit) is not decreased at all from the point of view of a receiver.

It is possible that the observer and receiver are under different accelerated frames of reference. Therefore, they may disagree on the energy of that photon (=h*f) because they disagree on both wavelength and frequency. Thus, to conserve energy, one must have a united frame of reference where the actual wavelength and frequency of the photon is not relative, yet one where the sender and receiver may have relative difference in their size of fundamental particles, ultimately rising to the perception of different wavelength. Thus, more gravitationally bounded systems will have relatively expanded fundamental particles which will receive incoming electromagnetic radiation as having relatively contracted wavelengths (the phenomenon of gravitational blue shift).